Housing First is a housing intervention that provides accommodation with minimal conditionality for people with complex needs.
Interventions that provide access to health care may be through mobile street outreach, access to health professionals in a non-traditional setting, or treatment for mental and physical health.
Discharge programmes coordinate services for people at risk of homelessness who are being discharged from institutions such as hospitals, prisons or the military.
Critical time intervention is a model of intensive case management for people transitioning between types of accommodation (e.g. those being discharged from an institution).
A wide range of interventions used to tackle substance misuse, often provided in combination. These include various therapy-based approaches, case management, drug treatment and supported housing.
Rapid rehousing places those who experiencing homelessness into accommodation as soon as possible. The intervention provides assistance in finding accommodation, and limited duration case work to connect the client to other services.
The Continuum of Care (CoC) is a community plan to organize and deliver housing and services to meet the specific needs of people who are homeless as they move to stable housing and maximum self-sufficiency.
Temporary accommodation is a type of accommodation offered to individuals experiencing homelessness who have not yet been offered a stable or permanent alternative.
Social Impact Bonds are a 'payment by results' model of financing for the reduction of homelessness and related outcomes.
Reconnection or Dispersal interventions encourage people experiencing homelessness to return to an area where they have history of familiarity – typically places where they have adult family members currently residing, where they have lived previously, or where they have a right to access services.
Emergency Host homes are emergency short-term placements in volunteers’ own homes in the community for people who are homeless or at risk of homelessness
Street outreach seeks to engage with people in the areas they are sleeping rough to check their health and wellbeing, collect information about their situation, facilitate access to accommodation, and provide information.
Family mediation and conciliation seeks to address issues within the relationship between a young person and their parent or carer to enable them to return to, or remain in their home thus avoiding homelessness.
Psychologically Informed Environments are services that take into account the emotional and psychological needs of the individuals using them and working in them.
Day centres for people affected by homelessness are building based services which provide advice and support with housing and related issues as well as basic facilities – commonly a hot drink, food and shower and laundry and internet facilities.
End of life, or palliative care, seeks to provide all individuals facing death with a passing that is free from pain; in familiar surroundings; close to family and friends; and with dignity.
The Tool provides one-page overviews for each of the main interventions in homelessness. At a glance, the overviews give ratings for how reliable the body of evidence is, how cost effective the intervention is and what kind of impact it has for people experiencing homelessness. These measures represent an aggregate of the available studies.
Each overview will also provide a breakdown of the findings from the body of evidence, including detail on what the body of evidence says about how the intervention works, which population groups and outcomes it affects and where in the world the evidence comes from. As the evidence base grows, particularly with the inclusion of process evaluations (which will tell us about how interventions have been implemented), we will also be including a section that covers considerations for implementation.
Use our evidence finder to see where in the world studies have been conducted. Filter results by client group, study setting or context and more.
Each intervention in the tool has a rating for strength of evidence, cost effectiveness and impact. These ratings represent and aggregate of the studies that have been conducted for that intervention. The thresholds for the ratings are as follows:
Considerable reliable evidence:
At least 3 RCTs or 5 other studies with combined sample size of at least 300
Some reliable evidence:
At least 2 RCTs or 3 other studies with combined sample size of at least 200
Limited reliable evidence:
At least 1 RCT or 2 other studies with combined sample size of 100
Insuffienct evidence available:
Any other number or combination of studies.
To be determined
3 or more RCTs showing positive effect. No studies showing adverse effect.
At least one RCT or 2 other studies showing positive effect and no study showing adverse effect.
At least 2 RCTs showing insigificant effects.
At least one RCT or 2 other studies showing negative effect and no study showing positive effect.
3 or more RCTs showing negative effect. No studies showing positive effect.
Insufficient evidence available or any other number or combination of studies and findings.
These are interim standards - longer term we are working towards the standards recommended in this report